Worlds Within Worlds 30 — What Is Symbiosis

(Up to five types of symbiosis describe how living systems on Earth interact, according to biologists. This article suggests that the larger omniverse uses just one of those types, possibly two of them. Around the time of INIT, we didn’t receive any ITC contacts that describe spirit-world symbiosis per se, although some messages did mention the way spirit beings at various levels interact with each other, how they view the brutality of life on Earth, and (though they no longer feel physical pain) how, on rare occasions, they can experience mental discomfort or even distress in their dealings with each other… especially when dealing with spirits in denser levels or universes farther from the source. This article is sprinkled with some of that information that has led me to believe that most of the interactions throughout most of the worlds of spirit are “mutualistic”—that is, everyone benefits—though there seem to be exceptions.

This article casts the Earth in a dark light. After all, our planet has been stuck in a sort of shadow since the first epoch (before Babylon). The intent isn’t to make us feel guilty or ashamed to be living on Earth today, but to find ways to make the most of a lifetime… to make our lives as “light” as possible! MM)


Symbiosis refers to how living things get along with each other, and the word is derived from the ancient Greeks… syn (together) and bios (living). It’s basically an assessment of how interrelationships work.

Symbiosis on Earth

Science breaks symbiotic relationships down into three or four or sometimes five types, ranging from getting along nicely to getting along badly:

  1. Mutualism (both entities benefit).
  2. Commensalism (one benefits while the other isn’t affected much).
  3. Competition (both vie for food or resources).
  4. Parasitism (the parasite benefits while the host is harmed).
  5. Predation (the predator kills the prey).

While some biologists consider competition (#3) and predation (#5) to be symbiotic relationships, others don’t. For the sake of the article let’s consider all five.

Biologists are concerned largely with symbiosis among different species—for example:

  1. Clownfish and sea anemones living together on a coral reef (mutualism),
  2. Barnacles attached to a whale (commensalism),
  3. Zebras and wildebeests drinking from a shrinking waterhole in the dry season (competition),
  4. Ticks on a deer sucking blood and injecting disease germs (parasitism), and
  5. Lions killing and eating zebras (predation).

The five types of symbiosis could also apply to human affairs, but that can sometimes get messy and heated as we observe how we humans treat each other and the planet. I won’t try to delve into those complications here, although at the end of the article, in the comments section, readers are invited to toy with the symbiosis-in-human-affairs idea in an exercise that could be insightful and enlightening to us all… as long as we all try to be kind, objective, and nonjudgmental in our comments. (If there’s any discussion, I’ll moderate it to try to keep it all calm and clean.)

Meanwhile, this article takes a simpler approach. It just compares symbiosis here on Earth (above) to how I believe a nobler and simpler* form of symbiosis works throughout the omniverse (below).

*The omniverse itself isn’t simple, of course. It’s complicated in its vast, superimposed, multidimensional structure, which is difficult for us 3-dimensional humans to fathom. But symbiosis throughout that complex omniverse seems to have a simple elegance.

So let’s look at that purer, simpler form of symbiosis that seems to be fundamental in the grand scheme.

Symbiosis Throughout the Omniverse

I think we have to consider two ways that symbiosis is at work throughout nearly all of the omniverse, and I suppose we could call them something like “peer symbiosis” and “step-down symbiosis”:

  • Peer symbiosis occurs between entities sharing the same universe. Examples include 1) how different species on Earth interact, 2) how people interrelate in society, and 3) how spirits come together at level 3 to collaborate on an ITC project.
  • Step-down symbiosis occurs between entities in different universes. As life-energy streams from the source to create many “parallel” universes, each universe along the way acts like a step-down transformer in a power grid here on Earth. The entities in one universe receive life-energy from a finer universe closer to the source, then transduce it into a form that’s passed along to a denser universe further from the source. There’s a constant interplay between dimensions or universes, such as 1) the relationship between our physical body-mind and our spirit… or 2) the working relationship between an energy healer and his or her spirit team, or 3) the collaboration between ITC researchers on Earth and their spirit friends.

I think the intent (or the “grand plan”) is for all of those symbiotic relationships to be mutualistic throughout the omniverse. That is, everyone benefits. (Only on Earth do relationships degrade to contention between winners and losers, as I explain below. It makes best sense to me that a win-win scenario is a celestial standard, even if it seems like wishful thinking to us here on Earth.)

Let’s begin with “step-down” symbiosis, since it seems to be the fundamental working principle that shapes and powers the entire omniverse.

Step-Down Symbiosis Between Universes

Life-energy vibrates slower and slower as it moves out-beyond from the source, creating all of the superimposed universes (white circles). It’s the unique vibration of each universe that keeps it distinct from the others.

Multidimensional (or “step-down”) symbiosis is simple and elegant: Life-energy from the source creates and nourishes everything in all of the countless universes.

It’s the structure of all those universes that can get a bit complicated, so let’s address that first.

The source creates and nourishes many universes (white circles) with its life-energy, and each universe is a close copy of the universes next to it. Our own physical universe would be one of those circles near the bottom of the picture, as we’ll see in a moment.

So our own physical universe with all of its galaxies, stars and planets has two subtler universe next to it—one slightly closer to the source, and another, denser universe slightly farther from the source. All three of those adjacent physical universes are nearly identical. They all have the same galaxies, stars, planets, and so on.

The universes all exist “in parallel”… that is, they’re superimposed over each other—separated not by space, but by vibration.

One way to envision that mind-boggling scenario is to take the picture above and imagine shrinking it down smaller than a pinpoint until everything’s superimposed in that pinpoint, then stretching the picture back out in its superimposed state. Not so easy to visualize, but at least that gives us a feel for how the omniverse is really structured… how the source itself views its vast creation.

We can do the same shrinking-and-stretching mental exercise on some of the illustrations below.

The many parallel (superimposed) universes throughout the omnniverse can be divided up into 7 arbitrary levels. Level 1 contains physical universes, levels 2, 3 and 4 contain subtler “astral” universes, and levels 5, 6 and 7 contain “ethereal” universes—formless light-and-energy universes of pure, brilliant consciousness.

So, symbiosis….

This picture is a simplified view of how physical planet Earth (as well as a human being) fits into the omniverse.

We’re at level 1 in the picture.

The Earth has many physical and spiritual copies in subtler universes closer to the source, and all of those universes can be arbitrarily divided up into seven levels.

If we can figure out how the simpler, more “natural” form of symbiosis works between the source and Earth, then the same simple principles would probably apply to everything everywhere in the omniverse.

First of all, life-energy doesn’t feed directly from the source into the Earth or into a human being. Instead, it’s transduced (or transformed or modified) by each entity along the way.

Essentially, life-energy is emitted straight from the source into level 7. The entities at level 7 transduce the life-energy and deliver it to their complementary entities at level 6, which in turn use that life-energy and transduce it for the level 5 entities, and so on… all the way down to level 1. The life-energy has the power to create and sustain everything in the omniverse, especially at finer or higher levels closer to the source, where it is strongest.

And that, I believe, is the crux of the simple, pure symbiosis that goes on endlessly throughout the omniverse: Everything is nourished primarily by life-energy from the source.

Two principles of symbiosis everywhere

  • Symbiosis moves constantly out-beyond as life-energy from the source is transduced at each of the seven levels (or more accurately, in each of the countless universes) to create and to nourish the next level (or universe) further from the source in vibration.
  • It’s usually mutualistic; that is, two adjacent universes both benefit from the symbiotic relationship. For example, by the time life-energy from the source reaches a person on Earth, it’s already been transduced by the person’s ethereal bodies, astral bodies, and so on. That stream of life-energy through many levels between the source and the person is mutually beneficial to every entity along the way—not just the person’s physical body but also his astral bodies, ethereal bodies, and so on.

The entire flow of life-energy outward from the source (I believe) is meant to be mutualistic at every level and in every universe. Everything benefits from this endless flow of life-energy.

All very simple, all very clean.

Here again are the five types of symbiotic relationships on Earth, along with an explanation of why only the first type (I believe) is at work as life-energy streams out-beyond from the source to forge and foster many universes:

  1. Mutualism (both parties benefit). Every entity throughout the omniverse is nourished primarily by life-energy from the source that has been transduced through entities in finer realms. This is the symbiosis that seems to be working everywhere! Everything benefits from this endless flow of nourishing life-energy. Every entity is like a smartphone or computer that’s always plugged in to keep the battery charged and is constantly downloading the latest apps and programs that keep it state-of-the-art and highly functional for its purpose in the grand scheme.
  2. Commensalism (one party benefits while the other isn’t affected much). As life-energy streams out-beyond from the source to nourish everything, it’s conceivable that some entities might be unaffected as the life-energy passes through them to nourish denser entities farther from the source; they simply pass the life-energy along. But it makes better sense to me that they’re always benefited by the life-energy passing through them.
  3. Competition (both vie for food or resources). Entities everywhere are nourished primarily by life-energy delivered to them by finer entities. The omniverse is rich with life-energy, so there’s no need for competition in the step-down symbiosis that seems to be omnipresent and omnipotent. While the Earth has limits to growth, the omniverse apparently does not.
  4. Parasitism (the parasite benefits while the host is harmed). Again, there’s no place or purpose for parasites in the grand scheme of things. Living beings never steal life-energy from each other or cause each other harm. Life-energy is always given and received freely as it flows with vast abundance through the omniverse.
  5. Predation (the predator kills the prey). The idea that one entity could destroy another entity to take its life-energy is ghastly and unheard-of throughout the omniverse… except for those who know about life on Earth or who have experienced a lifetime here. (Even finer beings with infinite knowledge, love, and patience seem to be taken aback sometimes by the predation they observe here on Earth; read the “Cattle Madness” article on page 10 of this linked journal.)

We’re so accustomed to the brutal symbiotic relationships here on Earth that a mutualistic, win-win omniverse might seem like cockeyed optimism, but I’m reasonably certain that it’s the way of life (almost) everywhere. The ITC contacts we received late last century (detailed messages and images delivered from the worlds of spirit into our TVs, computers, telephones, radios and other devices) certainly suggest that level 3 is a nice, mutualistic, win-win place to live.

Peer Symbiosis Between Entities of the Same Universe

For this section I’ve gleaned some “ITC Gems” from this site to see what our spirit friends have to say about their lives and their relationships with each other. After each short quote from the spirits at level 3 I add a comment about how it might provide some insight into spirit-world symbiosis. All of these messages were delivered to my friend Maggy Fischbach of Luxembourg from our friends at level 3.

Gem #2 has descriptions of their lives at level 3, the paradise realm where most people from Earth awaken after they die. Level 3 is also the place where they assembled the Timestream sending station late last century in order to deliver high-tech communications to ITC researchers on Earth:

The average age of all those who pass over to us becomes 25 to 30 years. If they died in old age, they awaken here in full consciousness after a regenerating sleep that lasts about six weeks of Earth time. In some cases it can be shorter. The children arriving on the third level are lovingly accepted and cared for by their relatives who live here. The children continue growing up until they have reached the age of 25 to 30 years. We live together with other life forms… with humans who before their bodily death lived on other planets… with dwarfs, giants, and gnomes and with bodiless (formless?) entities. Approximately 60 billion humanoids from all existing worlds congregate here. They continue to cultivate friendships and partnerships.

Symbiotic implications: It would appear that a world at level 3 (at least that particular world whose inhabitants call it Marduk or Eden) is a gathering place for many diverse beings from various worlds in various universes (“formless” might refer to finer beings from level 5, 6, or 7 who down-step to level 3 to collaborate there on a project) who all have one thing in common: They get on well with each other in a mutualistic way, drifting into friendships, partnerships, and projects of compatible, like-minded folks.

Gem # 24. More descriptions of life at level 3:

Along the River of Eternity (in the level 3 world called Eden), about 60 percent of each populous area consists of people of the same earth nationality coming from the same time in history. The remaining group includes people of different nationality or time period. People here are very much like they were during their lifetime. Men and women have the same sexual needs as before their death. Over 60 billion people live here along the River of Eternity. It is not always possible to find everyone you are looking for, even for us at Timestream. People go to the groups they feel drawn to. Beings who feel like we do, who have the same views and aims, come together in Group Timestream. They may be of different culture and race. The mental compatibility always wins out.

Symbiotic implications: Again, amid a vast diversity of intelligent life at level 3, mutualism is assured as beings come together in resonant, like-minded communities.

Gem # 16. Still more descriptions….

People arrive here with the same psychological and emotional nature they had when they died, although shortcomings and imbalances can be overcome through rapid learning…. Almost everyone arrives here with false hopes and expectations, some because of lack of spiritual understanding, others because of their religious teachers who had a very incomplete view of this world. Many here (at level 3) led a good life on Earth but were not perfect. People who occasionally lie are not bad as long as they do not hurt anyone else with their deception. People who are unjust out of ignorance, or because they act in haste, are not bad people. There are many here who never sent a person from their door because he was lower on the social ladder, had different political views or another religion. Some of them ask themselves, “Why am I sharing this planet with cheats, adulterers, liars, thieves, and those who indulged in excesses and were disloyal?!” They know that these other souls cannot harm them, but they are terribly upset and disappointed that they must be here, among them, rather than in a promised land.

Symbiotic implications: After a physical lifetime, beings arrive at level 3 with some of the thorny symbiotic thought processes they’d learned on worlds like Earth, but they quickly learn that mutualistic, win-win behavior is the way of life at level 3. They can either adapt (by overcoming their competitive, parasitic, and predatory urges) or else perhaps “down-step” to level 2 or level 1 or into Earth’s shadow (which we describe a bit later).

Gem # 23. Or, if people from Earth can’t adapt to win-win living at level 3, they might reincarnate, as spirit friend Swejen Salter told Maggy Fischbach in 1987:

If you harbor bad intentions and thoughts you will not be here very long. Such people reincarnate. Most people at first settle in the mid-Astral plane (level 3) when they cross over, but many have difficulties adjusting… for example, those who misunderstood or rejected the reality of life after death, those who ignored their deep skills, talents and desires in order to make money, and victims of war and violence.

Symbiotic implications: Again, the lower forms of symbiotic behavior we learn on Earth, especially if they drag us away from our soul purpose, have to be overcome before we can adapt to life at level 3, and it’s often a difficult process of adjustment.

Gem # 19. Paradise isn’t endless bliss, as we sometimes picture it. Being busily immersed in projects is apparently as common throughout the omniverse as it is on Earth. At least it seems to be at level 3.

We too are overcome by a certain tiredness after long and hard work. It is not comparable to physical exhaustion but rather like the human need for change and relaxation. This relaxation is provided and takes but a short time as you measure it.”

Symbiotic implications: With the abundance of life-energy at level 3, the spirits there don’t experience the kind of physical exhaustion that’s common on Earth, even when they’re involved in a grueling project. Here in our physical world, everything steals life-energy from each other by feeding off each other—a behavior that is both cause and effect of predation, parasitism, and competition, which can be exhausting. While hard work here can wear us out, they at level 3 might also work hard, but it’s always in a mutualistic, win-win way… and they can simply “get away” once in a while to relax a bit.

Gem # 20. This is from a telephone dialog between Maggy and the higher being “Technician,” who facilitated the work at Timestream station at level 3. Maggy received the most prolific communications from Timestream, and in this contact she asked about the lighting in the pictures that were being delivered through her television:

Technician: “It is the light of a higher spirit being. Without this light you could not see the picture.” Maggy: “Could we compare that light to the ‘physical’ light, or light of the electromagnetic spectrum, that we see through our eyes?” Technician: “You could compare it. What you see as light sources are other beings beyond the third (astral) level without whose help humans of the third level could not manifest themselves.”

Symbiotic implications: While we on Earth think of light, heat, and other forms of energy as inanimate forces in our world, our spirit friends realize that it’s all life-energy from the source that’s being tranduced by various beings in various universes. It’s that rich, vast life-energy that makes all symbiosis—indeed, all life—possible. Apparently it’s the life-energy being transduced by ethereal beings that not only illuminates but also manifests the worlds at level 3 that are inhabited by people who had once lived in physical worlds like Earth.

Gem #14 tells us that their bodies at level 3 are not material or physical like ours, even though they resemble the physical bodies they’d had during their lifetimes on physical worlds like Earth.

Nonmatter is not to be compared to anti-matter but is really what we describe as soul or spirit. Every living creature, even an amoeba or a bacillus, has a soul. Ethereal beings in finer realms are not particularly interested in contacts between dimensions, but they support it because they can bring man closer to the realization of eternal life and the principle or being that you call God, Yahweh or Nirvana.

Symbiotic implications: This message suggests that everything is connected to the source (“has a soul”), and that energy beings and light beings from levels 5-7 have little interest in communication bridges between Earth and level 3 other than to nurture our relationship with the source and the life-energy it provides. In effect they’re encouraging more mutualistic behavior here on Earth as it exists at levels 3 and above.

Gem # 25. Maggy wanted to know more about higher beings like Technician, so our spirit friends at level 3 told her:

Some of us call them great souls or creators. They live on our plane and yet are really not among us. They can ascend to higher planes and again “bend down” to our level. Their power is almost unlimited and so is their wisdom and goodness. Their entire being is illuminated by understanding and forgiveness. It is impossible to describe the good feeling that overcomes the person who faces them and can speak to them. We seek council with these higher beings to determine the information to send to Earth. Communication among higher beings is something very special to behold. It is like a reservoir, one big network of communication. Compare it to several computers, except that these are highly evolved, living beings who exchange information as fast as a network of computers. If you speak to one of these beings all other higher beings are also simultaneously informed of this conversation and at the same time are aware of your entire personality. Since they have no secrets from each other, one can only get closer to them by being absolutely sincere. Insincerity is alien to them. Nothing remains hidden in their dimension. You sometimes forget in your physical world that sincerity plays a most important part over here.

Symbiotic implications: Most of us on Earth have grown accustomed to hidden motivations, insincerity, deception, suspicion, and other dark, emotional residue of competitive, parasitic, and predatory living, making it difficult for us to work directly with finer beings. But once people get settled into level 3 after a lifetime on Earth, if they’ve cleansed themselves of most of that residue, then they might be in a position to intercede between the erratic affairs of Earth and the steady intentions of finer beings with their vast knowledge and power.

Gem # 26. Technician, describing himself and his mission:

I am not an omnipotent being but have at my disposal far greater capabilities than a person. Remember, I am not infallible and am still in a process of learning. I am assigned to planet Earth. There are many planes below me and many planes above me. All these are again separated into other planes.

Symbiotic implications: This message supports the idea of multidimensional (or “step-down”) symbiosis.


This small sampling of ITC messages supports the idea that life in the spirit worlds and throughout the omniverse is intended to be a pleasant, win-win, mutualistic existence.

So why do we hear about parasitic spirits and spooky, angry ghosts? Aren’t they also a fact of life and afterlife? We’ll get to that in a moment, but first it’s important to understand how Earth symbiosis came to be.

The Origins of Terrestrial Symbiosis

The tissues and fluids of living things in the physical universe(s) are made largely of a dense, slowly vibrating life-energy that’s been transduced for existence in the material realm. Over the course of tens of thousands of years, plants and animals here on Earth have gotten in the habit of feeding off each other—essentially “stealing” that dense life-energy from each other—a nasty habit that we’ve given names like “predation” and “parasitism.”

Some of the ancient stones dug up near Ica, Peru, in recent years might have captured (pictorially) the darkest chapter of human history.

(The habit of feeding off each other apparently began when some of our very ancient ancestors—giant humans called “Titans”—discovered that they could enhance their vitality by eating the flesh and drinking the blood of superior humans called “demigods.” The demigods were apparently direct descendants of the original superhuman inhabitants of Earth—the Edenites. That dark chapter in ancient human history was captured in “myths”—for example, the Greek legend of Dionysus-Zagreus. The nasty habit was viewed as an abomination by finer beings in the omniverse, and apparently it was the true “fall of man” that religions talk about.)

By feeding off each other, living things on Earth weakened their connection to the more rarefied life-energy from finer realms closer to the source.

So today, when we come to Earth for a lifetime, we start adapting to its symbiotic relationships as soon as we attach to Mom’s breast (commensalism). As we grow up, we learn to survive amid the harsh symbiotic relationships going on all around us—those that are competitive, parasitic, and predatory. More sensitive, refined spirits who incarnate on Earth often have a difficult time adapting to its brutal ways.

In any case, we all come to take Earth symbiosis for granted during a lifetime. Heroic war stories, fishing shows on TV, and even Hallmark movie scenes of romantic steak dinners by candlelight are good examples of how we’ve learned to romanticize the brutal reality of living in this world with its competition, parasitism, and predation.

Lower Forms of Symbiosis Feed Back to Earth from its Shadow

Lately I’ve been using a sort of metaphorical diagram that’s easy to understand and I believe is fairly accurate in describing Earth’s shadow.

As life-energy from the source is transduced through various levels and universes and finally reaches us on Earth, some of that life-energy is deflected by the harsh symbiotic relationships in our world, especially the predatory and parasitic events in which living things steal life-energy from each other, sometimes killing and eating each other in the process.

The brutality of life on Earth repels some of the life-energy streaming from the source. Ideally, that pure life-energy would flood unobstructed into everything in our world from finer realms “within ourselves” to give us all the nourishment we need. Sadly, that flow of rich and rarefied life-energy from finer levels is obstructed as we steal life-energy from each other.

As the life-energy is deflected by earthy living, a sort of spiritual shadow is cast around the world. All of the terror, the craving, the deception, the hatred, and the deception of competitive, parasitic, and predatory living have no place to go in the mutualistic, symbiotic omniverse. They’re repulsive to our subtle counterparts in finer realms, so they swirl off the Earth to form a toxic spiritual shadow around the world.

Earth’s shadow perpetuates the dark symbiotic relationships we’re familiar with on Earth. More specifically, the relationship between us carnal humans and the troubled spirits inhabiting Earth’s shadow are in constant contention for life-energy, which is in short supply. So those spirits from the shadow move in and out of our lives, resulting in:

  • Competition (shadow spirits and humans vie for life-energy and influence).
  • Parasitism (parasitic spirits benefit while the carnal hosts are harmed).
  • Predation (predatory spirits can urge people toward suicide and murder).

Of course, most of that rather ugly symbiotic interplay goes on behind the scenes, since our five senses are immersed in the material world and can’t perceive the spiritual activity around us. Still, it’s not a pretty scenario.

That said, we’ve all learned to survive on Earth with both 1) the light flowing into us from finer realms within us and 2) the darkness encroaching on our world from the shadows. Some of us can even flourish in light if we’re aware of just a few spiritual truths.

Spreading Light in Earth’s Shadow Through Spiritual Understanding

Here are two simple tips for spiritual connection that can help us shine during a lifetime:

  • Be aware of the vast, multidimensional omniverse around us and the finer spiritual selves within us, all nourished by life-energy from the source at the center of everything.
  • Acknowledge our oneness with the source and foster conscious contact with our finest self through practices like meditation and prayer.

Beyond that, life on Earth is complicated and unpredictable—sometimes loving, sometimes brutal. I believe that the two steps above can gradually enhance the love and reduce the suffering during a lifetime. As we begin to feel the presence of finer spirit more and more intimately, our life naturally evolves and our relationships shift in pleasant, mutualistic ways.

Meanwhile, the world around us remains complicated and unpredictable, and we all have to find our way as best we can, given the unique talents, gifts and resources we have at our disposal.

Symbiosis in Human Affairs—An Exercise

Finally, we live in a world brimming with the five kinds of symbiotic relationships known to science:

  1. Mutualism (both entities benefit).
  2. Commensalism (one benefits while the other isn’t affected much).
  3. Competition (both vie for food or resources).
  4. Parasitism (the parasite benefits while the host is harmed).
  5. Predation (the predator kills the prey).

It might be enlightening to think about those five types of symbiosis and how they could also describe human affairs… how they can affect:

  • Couples (e.g. husband and wife),
  • Friendships,
  • Members of a church, club, or project,
  • Residents of the same community,
  • Employees in the same company,
  • Companies in the same business environment,
  • States or provinces within a nation,
  • Nations, religions, and multinational corporations coexisting in the world….

If any of these bullet items (or any other human relationships) catch your interest, you might come up with ideas of how some of the 5 types of symbiosis might apply to some of those human relationships. Then you’re welcome to post a comment about it below.

Your ideas might be from personal observation, or they might be purely hypothetical. Any ideas are welcome, although….

Let’s try to keep the discussion fun and illuminating. Let’s try to write insights, not incite riots. 🙂



About Mark Macy

Main interests are other-worldly matters ( and worldly matters (
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1 Response to Worlds Within Worlds 30 — What Is Symbiosis

  1. Mark Macy says:

    Here’s an example of that symbiosis-in-human-affairs exercise I was referring to at the end of the article. In this case it might apply to…


    1) mutualism. Families, businesses, schools, churches, and government bodies each come together in neighborhoods or geographic areas in the city, usually according to some sort of comprehensive plan. And they all behave (ideally) in ways that benefit each other.

    2) commensalism. The city has certain areas set aside as “open space” that are left to flourish in a natural state. Hiking trails allow people to venture into the wild, thus benefiting the people without doing much harm to the living things in the natural area.

    3) competition. Businesses try to attract more customers in order to get more business and to make more money. Developers draw up plans to convert prime property into a shopping center or residential neighborhood (and sometimes bribe city council members) in order to get the winning vote at a council meeting.

    4) parasitism. Casinos, liquor stores, and drug dealers subsist by providing products and services that not only let people “blow off steam,” but also (at their worst) appeal to human weaknesses (gambling and alcohol and drug abuse), slowly weakening the community.

    5) predation. Loan sharks, robbers, thieves, bullies, rapists, and murderers prey on residents and businesses.

    (similar 5-point lists could be done for just about any sort of human relationship)

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