(Politics and the Human Spirit – Installment 13)
You may have noticed that here in the USA there have been no wars between the states since 1865, when the Civil War came to an end and locked us firmly into a Union. There’s still plenty of bickering among states… and grumpy little groups threaten to secede from time to time… (dissatisfaction is part of the noble-savage character) but we no longer go to war over states’ rights. A strong federal government provides a reasonably stable umbrella of apprehensive peace among us Americans.
A lasting peace of this kind—semi-stable, semi-strained—is about the best we can ever hope to achieve as carnal humans here on Earth… given our egos, our hormones, and our fight-or-flight neurochemistries.
Our steadfast soul shines brightly at the center of our being, working nonstop… anchoring us solidly in love and good will. But our physical body is hard-wired for fear, suspicion, and conflict… and yanks endlessly at the anchor chain like an angry dog.
Because of the noble-savage battle raging endlessly inside us, a “shocks-n-springs” sort of peace is about the best that any “peaceful” nation can hope to sustain.
That same sort of “shocks-n-springs” peace that sustains itself in peaceful modern nations… will not prevail worldwide… among all nations and races and religions and multinational corporations… until humanity has forged a union of mankind under the umbrella of a strong world government… probably an empowered United Nations.
Once Planet Earth has an umbrella of a stable world government… only then will humanity achieve any measure of world peace. Only then will wars among nations become a thing of the past.
Meanwhile, there are things we can do in the short term (measured in years and decades) to keep world society from springing out of control… and there are things we can do in the long term to make life on Earth a smoother ride… to make the world and human beings safer and more peaceful… as we guide our evolution toward a paradise destiny.
This Politics and the Human Spirit series has explored a few of the things we can do in the short term to make the world a safer, happier place:
- Find a balance between people’s right to be free and societies’ right to be stable… like social democracies in modern Europe…
- Minimize military expense and efforts until needed… patterned after the body’s immune system defenses…
- Help politics become the spirit of society through a well-run global information infrastructure that purifies our collective knowledge, thoughts, and attitudes…
- Transform education to focus first and foremost on noble human character…
- Adopt sound principles of regulation at all appropriate levels…
- Develop stable, sustainable economies by adopting the “vitality ratio”… and
- Empower the United Nations as a world government.
The Most Critical Situation Today
I’d like to add one item to the list… a critical situation that could darken the fate of the United States in the near future… which could then shift the world onto a more savage course.
There’s a small but powerful, wealthy, and egocentric contingent here in the States associated with the Koch brothers, Karl Rove, and Fox News… who seem to want political power at any cost. The groups involved seem to be motivated largely by fear, mistrust, misinformation, and xenophobia… obsessing over a strong military, gun ownership, immigration policy, and other paranoia-related issues.
To manifest their savage agenda, a network of fraud-prone, computerized voting machines has been put in place in several key states to flip national elections in favor of the conspirators. Those cheat-easy voting machines brought the Bush Administration into power, leading to the current upheaval in the Middle East. If they’re not disabled, they could usher America and the world much deeper into a dark and troubled era.
Read more about the amazing election-fraud drama unfolding in the USA…
So… I’d add this bullet item to the list:
- Ensure honesty and integrity in the way we humans choose our leaders. If elections are used to select leaders (as opposed to managerial consensus as in places like China), control election integrity at the appropriate level, within the framework set up by higher levels. Most important in this case: National elections need to be managed, monitored, and guaranteed at the national level… NOT at the state or provincial level… where there is much greater opportunity for cheating.
Those cheat-easy voting machines sitting ominously in Ohio, Virginia, Florida, and other key states… waiting to steal the next US presidential election… comprise (imho) the most critical and potentially destructive condition in the world today. If unstopped they will lead America and the world down a very dark, savage road this century… beginning as early as 2016.
One theme runs through this series of articles like a thread, pulling everything together… and that is the fact that we’re noble-savage creatures on a noble mission to spread peace, love, and good will on Earth… but our savage side keeps getting in the way.
That has to be the closing note for this series: To fulfill our mission, we have to foster our noble qualities and to tame our savage side… and we have to do it at all levels of human affairs.
Fostering nobility at the personal level can move us toward inner peace and happy relationships.
Fostering nobility at the planetary level can move us toward contented societies and world peace.
Separating the Noble from the Savage
First we need a good understanding of our noble-savage nature… what it means to be noble… what it means to be savage.
“Noble,” as defined in my work, refers to the finer spiritual part of us that’s driven by love, trust, good will, and the desire to serve others selflessly.
“Savage” refers to carnal human qualities that help us survive in a rather savage world where life kills life to survive. Our worst savage qualities compel us to be fearful, suspicious, contemptuous, and aggressive.
We also have a lot of benign savage qualities that give us basic survival skills in a carnal world. Breathing, eating, procreating (sex), and healing from sickness and injury… these are all savage human qualities.
The best way to distinguish between the noble and the savage is to answer a simple question:
What qualities are present in the afterlife paradise worlds of light?
Those are noble human qualities: Love, trust, good will, desire to serve others selflessly…. Those qualities form our noble core as human beings.
Most of our other qualities were hard-wired into our carnal compositions long, long ago so that we could survive through hostile eras on Earth. List all of those qualities that help us survive the rigors of life on Earth, and you’ve got a snapshot of our savage side.
No Such Thing as a Noble War
There can’t be a “noble war” because conflict of any kind is savage… period. No exceptions. Even a debate or difference of opinion is savage.
Noble thoughts, noble words, and noble actions resonate in human affairs.
Savage thoughts, words, and actions cause dissonance.
Because of the savage qualities of life on Earth, war might sometimes be justifiable… even necessary… but it’s never noble. War is always savage.
We need to stop romanticizing savage human behavior if it blurs the lines between noble and savage. Know savage behavior for what it is and accept it as part of our carnal make-up… but don’t think there’s anything noble or highly spiritual associated with it. There isn’t.
Basically, we have to do savage things to survive in a savage world… but the more we do that, the more difficulties we’ll have later on… as we try to get settled into a light afterlife paradise after we die and leave the Earth. If we attach ourselves too heavily to our savage qualities during our lifetime, our spirit will migrate to darker, more troubled realms after we die… where it will feel more “at home.”
It’s always best for us humans to exhibit our noble side as much as possible in our day-to-day lives. Better for those around us… better for ourselves… better for our destiny.
With that in mind, every human life and every human institution should center itself around a strong core of noble values… and those values should be manifested in the world through noble behavior.
People should know about the savage qualities of the world and the savage compulsions within them, and that education should probably begin in adolescence, when hormones start to rage.
People should understand the savage side of our human nature and know what kind and degree of savage behavior is appropriate.
Everyone and every group should maximize noble choices and noble living in the course of a day or a lifetime… resorting to savage behavior only when necessary.
Politics and the Human Spirit series:
1 Introduction 2 Privatization and the public good 3 Military 4 Information 5 Spirit of Society 6 Education 7 Regulation 8 Economics 9 Managing the World in the 21st Century – 10 The carnal line between noble and savage – 11 Embrace the divine; it’s where we shine – 12 Who decides what? – 13 Finally… good politics
Best and worst countries to be born – Election fraud 2012 – Best and worst US presidents – Humor in politics – Biggest political news – End of the American dream – Blown to bits in the computer age – Standards, the key to peace – What Obama and Stalin really have in common – Bad counsel and a short leash – Capital punishment & the human spirit
Well said Mark
Mark: How extraordinarily well you describe the human being. Noble-Savage says it all. As one microscopic human being on this “pale blue dot”, there is one aspect of human nature that has come to the fore for me recently and that is malice. When I look back I can see with sharp clarity the times I myself have been the victim of malice, without knowing it and mystified by others’ behaviour for no reason I could fathom. Now, however, I find the same trait within myself and I endeavour – difficult as it is – to overcome. Whether this recognition of malice came about because I recognised it (which I suspect) or whether this is simply as one is amongst millions of others. To me this proves a flaw in the brain structure which you yourself would understand so well, with all the studying which has given you this knowledge.
Thanks for the introspective comments, Liz.
I needed to digest them for a few days and do some introspection of my own. 🙂
I suppose I too harbor some feelings that could be inferred as having malice… mostly toward those who revel in gaining power to promote divisiveness, fear, and hatred.
I try hard, through meditation and reflection, to remove my own negative emotions toward these forces and toward those who harbor them… and to replace the malice by simply exposing those forces for what they are.
And being able to write this blog is a huge help along that line. It gives me a platform to express my thoughts and opinions in a way that I can remove (or at least try to remove) most of my anger and angst. Writing helps me defuse my emotions that would otherwise trouble me… and have troubled me in the past.
Yes, there are definitely weaknesses in our brains and carnal compositions that take a lot of work to keep in balance!
Oh boy, so very, very well said. But what a task.
Imo it’s just soooo difficult to keep a consistent noble mindset while trying to survive in this world. It’s just not easy at all. Between the banksters, lawyers & politicians it seems to require truly superhuman willpower to maintain a positive attitude regarding potential good progress of mankind.
But Mark, as always, you help a lot. Thanks so very much! I’ll try to keep hanging in there.
I connect with all that you are saying;it sounds as if you have read the Urantia Book.
I’ve read parts of the massive Urantia book.
Much of its teachings are similar to what we learned through ITC communications.
Mark – I also appreciate your insight. You’ve been quite fortunate to have received such valuable long-term enlightenment.
I’d like to ask a follow-up question related to the development of a one world government (and the positive attributes that would bring to global cooperation, etc.):
“would the spirit world ever subscribe to a thought process that “the ends justify the means”?
In other words, as we watch the media and our political leaders appear to manipulate the news that gets reported (in what appears to me and some others at least, an attempt to re-write american history), there seems a tendency to want to eliminate the belief in american exceptional-ism.
“IF” the end result (of re-writing american history to help get “american exceptional-ism out of the public psyche) were a faster path towards our country eventually accepting a one world government (aka: a new world order) would the spirit world be “OK” with the lies and deceit required to “speed up the process of acceptance”?
It would seem that the “light” would never accept deception (under any circumstances) regardless of the ends it was trying to create.
(I hope all that made sense).
David, I agree that the US has a lot of exceptional qualities, and frankly, there’s no place else my wife and I would rather live out the rest of our lives.
But, then, so do Switzerland, Singapore, Finland, and the Netherlands have exceptional qualities… in fact, in terms of economics, they’re at the top right now!
So do Panama, Paraguay, El Salvador, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago, Thailand, Guatemala, the Philippines, Ecuador and Costa Rica… which are the happiest countries in the world today!A
People in India and China have two of the best job markets in the world, making them exceptional too.
And here are the healthiest countries in the world today:
10. South Korea
Highest Female Healthy Life Expectancy:
2. South Korea
So, it’s great to live at a time when exceptionalism is spread nicely around the world.
Gives me hope that the time is right for world unity and world government.
Thanks Mark. I agree with the long-term desirability of “unity”. I also agree that there is really only one way that could ever happen (which is via a “world government”). We likely only see the the “timing and priority” differently.
I just don’t see how we can contemplate giving up our own sovereignty in exchange for “world unity” amid the pure evil that exists in many parts of the world. Our own country is far from perfect, but isn’t bringing the most evil parts of the world up to speed (with the world as a whole) a more urgent priority than the U.S. giving up its sovereignty?
But let me concede that the above points are at least “debatable”.
The more important question deals with something far more basic – would the spirit world ever support using deception to justify a particular end result?
I realize that nothing can ever be proven beyond the shadow of any doubt (including the spirit world’s “real” intentions), but given all that you’ve been privileged to be a part of (as it relates to communicating with the spirit world) – what is your overall impression (based on what you’ve heard directly from the spirit world coupled with your own gut instinct)?
I am truly seeking your overall impressions – I’m honestly not trying to be argumentative.
Mark – I re-read my last question, and I’d like to clarify it. I think it is obvious to anyone who has spent any fair amount of time (researching the spirit world) to understand that there are deceptive elements at the lower levels.
It seems, however, that the spirit teams (that many of the longer-term groups have communicated with) sincerely “do” have humanity’s best interest at heart – so my last question was meant specifically towards those spirit teams which seem to have communicated in a sincere and sympathetic manner – “would those spirit teams potentially use deception to accomplish a long-term “positive” goal – such as to promote global unity”?
Again, most of us realize that one would have to take a “gut-instinct” approach to answer this question (obviously “deceptions” are not typically disclosed) – but someone with an extensive background would have their thoughts on this. I really appreciate any light you can help shed on the subject.
David, you ask a question that I’ve thought a lot about over the years and have never had the opportunity to discuss my gut feelings on the subject: Do ethereal beings sometimes support our savage motivations to accomplish greater goals within human affairs in the semi-savage environs of Earth?
Thanks for sticking with your question. Obviously I didn’t answer it the first time, partly because I just replied to the other issues and let this one fall through the cracks… but also (I’m sure) because I’m a little uneasy stating my theories on the motivations of the ethereal beings, who see the big picture of things so much more clearly than we humans do.
So, I’ll make my comments with the preface that these are just my opinions, and not very solid ones at that… and if they don’t accurately reflect ethereal motivations, I’ll find out someday.
The first thing that comes to mind is the unruly character of god and man in Biblical writings. The ‘god’ Yahweh is sometimes described as one of many ethereal beings, or ‘lesser gods.’ One of many examples on the web:
My gut feeling is that humans have been noble-savage creatures living in a noble-savage world for many thousands of years… and the ethereals who try to offer us guidance and support are all aware of the savage side of our nature. I suspect that they tend to us the way we might tend to our pets… say, some dogs, some cats, some birds, and some mice and hamsters all in the same household. We know that the cats, by nature, aren’t going to get along with the other animals, so we do what we can to train them to coexist in some kind of uneasy peace.
To keep the peace, we may have to sometimes chastise one or two of the pets, so they know our displeasure. Still, there are times we want, say, a dog to be aggressive. Suppose we’re living in a rough neighborhood, and one of our more aggressive dogs is our watchdog. In this case, we actually support the dog’s barking and biting if it can stop a burglary in the home.
Ethereal beings working with humans on Earth are probably in a similar position to pet-owners. They do what they can to help us get along, but they know that the Earth is a rough neighborhood, and that we humans have to sometimes get a little testy to protect ourselves and our possessions.
They know that the best human attitude is one of love, trust, and forgiveness… but those soul values don’t always work well in a savage world. I suspect that the ethereals take that into account. Those who can tolerate humanity’s noble-savage nature deal with us humans accordingly… always guiding us toward the noble, but sometimes supporting us even when we have to exert our savagery to survive… and perhaps when we have to “force” nobility upon those who are unwilling to accept it.
I’m fairly sure that most ethereals find human nature unacceptable, and they want nothing whatsoever to do with the Earth. There are far more important projects going on in the vast cosmos that are far removed from the savagery of Earth… but for those who do choose to (or HAVE to) work with us, I’m sure they take our savage inclinations into account and deal with us the best they can.
Hopefully that’s at least a start toward answering the question. If you want to extend this into a dialog, that would be fine with me. It’s a deep and meaty subject.
Mark – thank you for such a thoughtful response. It was about as good a response as a question like that could receive (given the challenging subject matter). Overall, I found myself in agreement with the logic you used.
It would seem (over the many decades) that many of the ethereal experiences humanity has encountered could only (most logically) point towards a “noble” cause (on behalf of the ethereal entities).
When we fully attempt to contemplate “why” some of the entities involved would go through such exhaustive, long-term engagements, we would be hard-pressed to conclude that there was some nefarious intent (as it relates to many of the well-documented ethereal experiences).
The collective “proof” that has been provided over time is massive and overwhelming (especially when you throw-in some additional subject matter such as the well-documented UFO and DMT-type experiences). Yet, the media, governments, the scientific community, the wealthy / powerful all (on the surface anyway) ignore it. Many of these same groups even ridicule those who attempt to shine attention on the collective proof.
If it’s true (that many of these same groups actually “do” pursue the subject matter “behind the scenes” to keep it to themselves for some reason) then many of these ethereal entities don’t seem content with this situation (which might explain why so many seemingly “ordinary” people such as Oneil, Bacci, Meek, (you) and even people such as Stainton Moses have been contacted, and then were compelled to “spread the word”).
If we allowed ourselves to assume that these groups (i.e. governments, scientific community, rich/powerful, etc.) are (in fact) in-contact with the ethereal, then it really, really begs the question “why do they keep it to themselves” – could these people be so self-centered (in spite of the positive and sometimes urgent tone and direction of the messages that are brought) as to use it for their own, personal earthly gain (i.e. power, wealth, etc.).
After all of the time that has gone by, it just doesn’t seem plausible that these groups would be afraid to “spook” their fellow humans (pardon the intentional use of a pun). It seems that the “benefit” to mankind (and the resulting unity) would way overtake any legitimate concerns of “shocking” the public.
I would love to know your thoughts on this (most puzzling) situation?
Yes, it’s my understanding that ethereals (angelic beings) are working as part of a “spiritual heirarchy” that oversees the activities going on in many worlds, including ours, and one of the overall aims is to keep vibrations light… that is, to foster noble behavior everywhere.
There are also many beings, as you point out, that exist in denser realms, with coarser vibrations (physical, astral realms)… and many of those beings work outside the heirarchy, often going off-course from the ‘grand plan’ (which is to spread light, resonance, good will…. The beings that veer off-course include some of the ETs (residing in parallel physical universes to ours), and troubled spirits who inhabit spiritual realms that are darker and denser than the ethereal realms. Those types of influences often work against the better interests of our world.
I’ts also my understanding that various earth groups, especially governments, have been approached by both ETs and ethereal beings. Even though the ethereals are vastly more powerful than ETs and astral beings, governments generally choose to work with the denser beings because of tangible benefits… like multidimensional craft that could be used for military purposes. Ethereals generally have more peaceful iintentions and plans that would make people’s lives better. That’s not as interesting to governments, sad to say.
Our INIT group had a very rare and wonderful opportunity when The Seven ethereals chose to work with our group. It was a new approach for them, I think. They decided not to work with governments, probably for the reason stated above. And they didn’t select a group of managing priests to work with, as they had done at the Sothis Temple near modern-day Baghdad several centuries before the birth of Babylon… which marked the beginning of the Second Epoch of modern humanity.
They chose our INIT group apparently because we hailed from various countries and cultures and we were all (at least in the first couple of years) aligned to principles of peace and serving freely for the betterment of humanity. As a group we had a lot of important skills and connections, and the committed ethereals graced us with unprecedented ITC miracles… until our personalities and egos caused things to spin out of control. When our good will and trust and general resonance deteriorated, the ITC connections broke down.
Long story short, the ethereals keep looking for effective ways to have a noble influence on our world… but we’re the ones who always undermine the good projects… as our savage inclinations eventually take over.
That could change, and the miracles could resume, at anytime, whenever a group with good intentions (not just at a surface level, but at the core of the members) attracts the help of the ethereals.
Mark – unfortunatly it’s taken a while for me to catch-up (I’ve got lots of stuff going on with an upcoming move). I’d like to follow-up on one of the thoughts you expressed regarding conservatives, Fox News, etc. I’m sure there are many others (like me) who get what you’re saying (on many if not “most” levels) – however, I’d love to understand how you view the other side of the political spectrum who seems to be bent on “not” creating a sustainable economic environment and who seem to (so readily) be at ease with using deception to achieve their own political (liberal) agenda – to “me”, their efforts (and most importantly the “means” they use to achieve their ends does NOT seem to be “of the light”.
This gets back to the heart of my earlier question. Does the ends justify the means when it is clearly using public deception as a tool?
Thanks again – I really enjoy and appreciate the civility (and nobleness) of your site and discussions here.
Mark – I’d like to add some additional color to my last question. First, your experiences (and your writings) have helped me look at the BIG picture more clearly. I better understand the need for global cooperation (as challenging as that appears judging by current conditions). What I’m really curious about is how you see the current efforts and actions being taken by today’s liberal politicians? Perhaps we don’t see the current path (that they’re attempting to take our country down) the same way(?)
From my vantage point, we appear to have a liberal party who is spending more money than we could “ever” pay back (and a president who is simultaneously spending lavishly on himself via White House parties, expensive vacations and other personal enjoyment, etc) while all of this dire economic situation unfolds and so many people are really hurting. The bottom line appears to be that all of the money that our current politicians have spent has not improved things at all. There are as many people out of work today as there were 4 years ago.
Am I missing something (or do we actually agree that the current economic situation calls for a different set of leaders than the ones we have)?
Just for the sake of putting it out there – I am not a republican nor a democrat (both “parties” are corrupt overall) – I believe that we must do things that actually “work” to help people pull themselves up and Flourish. I’m more than happy to pay taxes for doing things that actually “work” to accomplish helping all people.
Hey David, good luck with your move.
As far as American politics goes, I guess the bottom line is that both major parties, like all human groups everywhere, are populated by noble-savage human beings trying to find some semblance of order in a noble-savage world. Regardless of how noble their platforms are, whether liberal or conservative, they can only do so much….
That said, I think it’s important for a political party to start with a platform that’s as noble as possible. That, at least, sets the sails in the right direction for the ship of state.
In my view, the right direction for a noble government is the one that, first and foremost, helps the people to find a measure of peace and contentment during their stay on Planet Earth.
Life is not easy for many millions of people in the world. Simply telling them to buck up and pull themselves up by their bootstraps doesn’t really help those who face serious difficulties (poverty, addiction, mental illness….). It adds humiliation to their suffering.
Government needs to provide programs to help them. Not just welfare payments, but programs that teach people, from a young age, self-esteem, love, forgiveness, hope, and other noble qualities that can at least help them keep the inner flame burning under the savage conditions on Earth.
It takes an economic system that keeps society’s needs line with resources, so that not so many people fall through the cracks into poverty.
It takes laws to restrict predatory behavior among merchants, bankers, lawyers, drug peddlers, and other noble-savage humans who profit through savage behavior.
More important, it takes a constant effort to foster the noble side of human nature at every level of society, from the rules in the kindergarten classroom to the laws that govern multinational corporations. Noble values have the be the unrelenting focus of government, society, and family life… if there is to be peace, contentment, and security here on Earth.
I guess I lean toward the liberal side of American politics because its platform is based largely on helping the less fortunate through social programs. As I said, there’s so much suffering in the world!.. and the primary role of any government should be to minimize suffering and to maximize well-being among the people.
The ethereals told us that if we have a choice at any point between making advances in ITC research or to help people, we should always use ITC to help people. That’s the way to get finer spiritual support for our human endeavors: serve others selflessly.
That may address some of the issues you raised in your comments, but I know it just scratches the surface. I wish I had all the answers… but hey, it’s complicated. 🙂
Mark – I agree that it’s complicated. If by being “liberal” one means “helping people” then we are all failing miserably. The stats don’t lie (but our politicians sure do). If all we know is what we see, we see self-proclaimed liberal people shouting down those with whom they disagree. We should be having civil, logic-based debate (so we can actually “fix” the major problems of our time) but instead, we see society becoming less tolerant and most of that intolerance seems to be coming from people who call themselves “liberal” (present company definitely excluded).
I really only know (for sure anyway) how “I” (and many of those that I’m close to) feel about the current direction our (so-called) political “leaders” are taking us. That direction is a continuing colossal “waste” of valuable resources (our tax $ coupled with lots of borrowed $ from china – who’s a huge human-rights violator). This money could be (and should be) spent on programs that actually “help” people (but many of our programs seem to actually be making things worse for the people they were intended to help)
One of the issues that causes so many conservative people to want to stop throwing increasing amounts of tax money into these programs is that while this colossal waste is going on, our political “leaders” are living the high-life and directing huge amounts of money (that could be and should be spent on truly helping those in need) towards crony-capitalism (and
political paybacks to lobbyists, etc).
I know it really irks many people (who would be considered “conservative”) that they are labeled as uncaring or unsympathetic when the REAL issue is that we are spending ourselves into oblivion without having anything to show
for it. Many feel that if we don’t get this turned around very soon, everything will get much worse for “everybody” and especially worse for the people who are already poor and in need.
We need leaders that are focused on fixing things and helping people – but do we think that the current leadership in place is “really” trying ? It looks more like lip-service (while they live like kings).
I realize there is no real question here – it’s just the dreams of a group of people (who are tired of seeing self-serving people posing as political leaders) wishing that (truly) spiritual people would step-up and take charge.
Again, let me thank you for a civil (and helpful) forum in which to engage. I think that people (like you) who have been blessed to have the experiences you’ve had (with the ethereal) can really be a beacon of light in a world that seems to be headed in the wrong direction.
Mark – I wanted to ask you if the vision of a One World Government that you support is an idea that was specifically addressed by your experiences with the ethereal? Is this concept something that the ethereal directly spoke about and supported? If so, was this a significant subject to them or something simply supported by their words and statements.
As always, I appreciate your insight (I don’t know if this is a subject you’ve already addressed – I’m working my way through your website when I can….you’ve got a lot of interesting topics. If you do address it somewhere, please let me know where it’s located.